"Twenty years ago, synesthesia - the automatic conjoining of two or more senses - was regarded by scientists (if at all) as a rare curiosity. We now know that perhaps one person in twenty is synesthetic, and so we must regard it as an essential, and fascinating, part of the human experience. Indeed, it may well be the basis and inspiration for much of human imagination and metaphor. No one has done more than Richard Cytowic and David Eagleman to bring a careful neuroscientific attention to synesthesia, grounded in decades of research and reports from thousands of patients. Their work has changed the way we think of the human brain, and Wednesday Is Indigo Blue is a unique and indispensable guide for anyone interested in how we perceive the world." - Oliver Sacks, author of The Man who Mistook his Wife for a Hat
"This is a clear, clever book that will appeal to synaesthetes in search of explanations, and to all with a passion for neurology's wild territory." - New Scientist
"An invaluable introduction to the phenomenon of synesthesia.... a well-structured exposition of the vast, rich literature on the subject. The text is richly illustrated, adding to the readers' understanding of the process. This well-written summary of what is known about synesthesia concludes with some helpful suggestions for the direction of future research. Summing Up: Highly recommended." - Choice Magazine
"Wednesday is Indigo Blue adds a new and rich philosophical discussion and a variety of cognitive neuroscience experiments to the topic of synesthesia. Cytowic and Eagleman make a convincing case that research on synesthesia has and will significantly contribute to our understanding of the brain's neural networks." - Harry A. Whitaker, Department of Psychology, Northern Michigan University
"A fascinating survey of the enormous variety and creativity of the synesthetic mind." - Daniel Tammet, synesthete and author of Born on a Blue Day
Synesthesia is a harmless perceptual condition is which the stimulation of one sense triggers experiences in another sense. For example, in a synesthete, hearing music might cause a synesthete to experience colors or textures. Or a sound might trigger a taste, or the concept of a weekday may trigger a color.
So there are many forms of synesthesia?
There are many possible cross-pairings or senses and concepts, probably over one hundred.
What percentage of the population has synesthesia?
It used to be thought to be quite rare, but we now know that about 4% of the population possesses some form.
Is there a term for someone with synesthesia?
Can one person possess many forms of synesthesia?
Yes. In fact, if you have one form, such as colored letters, then you're quite likely to have another form, such as colored months.
Are some types more common?
Some types are much more common than others. For example, the most common experience seems to be that sequences (such as weekdays or numbers) trigger a sense of spatial location (as in, 'Sunday is just beyond my left shoulder'). Second to that, sequences seem to trigger colors. Other types, such as a sound triggering a smell, is much more rare.
Is it random which types someone might have?
My lab has just discovered that the types tend to cluster. If you have colored letters, you're likely to have colored months, weekdays or numbers -- but you're no more likely than anyone else in the population to have, say, hearing-to-taste synesthesia.
What does that clustering mean?
We hypothesize that there may be several different conditions--and perhaps several different genetic bases--underlying the different clusters of synesthesia.
How do you know if someone is faking it? Or just claiming to have this for attention?
My lab and others have developed rigorous tests that only synesthetes can pass. Essentially these tests pivot on consistency: a letter-color synesthete will always pick the same color for a letter every time you present it, even years later. Someone faking it can't pass that test.
Is there a place where people can take the tests to determine if they have synesthesia?
No, it's not a hallucination, but an internal experience. For a synesthete, the number 3, say, triggers an internal experience of, say, purple. It's just self-evidently true to the synesthete that 3 and purple are equivalent.
Do all synesthetes experience the same colors for the same letters?
No. Their experiences are totally idiosyncratic. One synesthete's experiences is not like another's.
How many synesthetes have you studied in your laboratory?
We now have over 6,000 tested, verified synesthetes.
Would you say that they actually experience a different reality?
That's exactly right. There's an old question in philosophy about whether what your internal experience of the color we call Ã¢â‚¬Å“blueÃ¢â‚¬Â is the same as my experience of blue. Maybe I see blue the way you see red. It's an old question, but it turns out that the truth may be run even deeper. With synesthesia we can study and quantify the way that someone's reality can be different than someone else's. It's moved from philosophy to the laboratory.
Why do you study synesthesia?
Aside from the ability to study a different reality, it also serves as a powerful inroad into how the normal (non-synesthetic) brain works. The brain takes in all the senses through different channels, and constructs a unified reality from that. How it does this is an unsolved question in neuroscience, known as the binding problem. Synesthesia allows us to see how different brains do this differently.
A person with synesthesia might feel the flavor of food on her fingertips, sense the letter J as shimmering magenta or the number 5 as emerald green, hear and taste her husband's voice as buttery golden brown. Learn more.
Francis Crick, one of the premier biologists of the 20th century, passed away July 28, 2004, in San Diego. On his 88th birthday last June, I brought him chocolates and spent the day with him in his home in La Jolla.
David has been named a John Simon Guggenheim Fellow. He will use the fellowship opportunity to pursue the genetics and neuroimaging of synesthesia.